Hui of Liu-hsia, being chief criminal judge, was thrice
dismissed from his office. Some one said to him, "Is it not yet time for
you, sir, to leave this?" He replied, "Serving men in an upright way,
where shall I go to, and not experience such a thrice-repeated
dismissal? If I choose to serve men in a crooked way, what necessity is
there for me to leave the country of my parents?"
The duke Ching of Ch'i, with reference to the manner in which he should
treat Confucius, said, "I cannot treat him as I would the chief of the
Chi family. I will treat him in a manner between that accorded to the
chief of the Chil and that given to the chief of the Mang family." He
also said, "I am old; I cannot use his doctrines." Confucius took his
The people of Ch'i sent to Lu a present of female musicians, which Chi
Hwan received, and for three days no court was held. Confucius took his
The madman of Ch'u, Chieh-yu, passed by Confucius, singing and saying,
"O FANG! O FANG! How is your virtue degenerated! As to the past, reproof
is useless; but the future may still be provided against. Give up your
vain pursuit. Give up your vain pursuit. Peril awaits those who now
engage in affairs of government."
Confucius alighted and wished to converse with him, but Chieh-yu
hastened away, so that he could not talk with him.
Ch'ang-tsu and Chieh-ni were at work in the field together, when
Confucius passed by them, and sent Tsze-lu to inquire for the ford.
Ch'ang-tsu said, "Who is he that holds the reins in the carriage there?"
Tsze-lu told him, "It is K'ung Ch'iu.', "Is it not K'ung of Lu?" asked
he. "Yes," was the reply, to which the other rejoined, "He knows the
Tsze-lu then inquired of Chieh-ni, who said to him, "Who are you, sir?"
He answered, "I am Chung Yu." "Are you not the disciple of K'ung Ch'iu
of Lu?" asked the other. "I am," replied he, and then Chieh-ni said to
him, "Disorder, like a swelling flood, spreads over the whole empire,
and who is he that will change its state for you? Rather than follow one
who merely withdraws from this one and that one, had you not better
follow those who have withdrawn from the world altogether?" With this he
fell to covering up the seed, and proceeded with his work, without
Tsze-lu went and reported their remarks, when the Master observed with a
sigh, "It is impossible to associate with birds and beasts, as if they
were the same with us. If I associate not with these people,-with
mankind,-with whom shall I associate? If right principles prevailed
through the empire, there would be no use for me to change its state."
Tsze-lu, following the Master, happened to fall behind, when he met an old
man, carrying across his shoulder on a staff a basket for weeds. Tsze-lu
said to him, "Have you seen my master, sir?" The old man replied, "Your
four limbs are unaccustomed to toil; you cannot distinguish the five
kinds of grain:-who is your master?" With this, he planted his staff in
the ground, and proceeded to weed.
Tsze-lu joined his hands across his breast, and stood before him. The
old man kept Tsze-lu to pass the night in his house, killed a
fowl, prepared millet, and feasted him. He also introduced to him his
Next day, Tsze-lu went on his way, and reported his adventure. The
Master said, "He is a recluse," and sent Tsze-lu back to see him again,
but when he got to the place, the old man was gone.
Tsze-lu then said to the family, "Not to take office is not righteous.
If the relations between old and young may not be neglected, how is it
that he sets aside the duties that should be observed between sovereign
and minister? Wishing to maintain his personal purity, he allows that
great relation to come to confusion. A superior man takes office, and
performs the righteous duties belonging to it. As to the failure of
right principles to make progress, he is aware of that."
The men who have retired to privacy from the world have been Po-i,
Shu-ch'i, Yuchung, I-yi, Chu-chang, Hui of Liu-hsia, and Shao-lien.
The Master said, "Refusing to surrender their wills, or to submit to any
taint in their persons; such, I think, were Po-i and Shu-ch'i.
"It may be said of Hui of Liu-hsia! and of Shaolien, that they
surrendered their wills, and submitted to taint in their persons, but
their words corresponded with reason, and their actions were such as men
are anxious to see. This is all that is to be remarked in them.
"It may be said of Yu-chung and I-yi, that, while they hid themselves in
their seclusion, they gave a license to their words; but in their
persons, they succeeded in preserving their purity, and, in their
retirement, they acted according to the exigency of the times.
"I am different from all these. I have no course for which I am
predetermined, and no course against which I am predetermined."
The grand music master, Chih, went to Ch'i. Kan, the master of the band
at the second meal, went to Ch'u.
Liao, the band master at the third meal, went to Ts'ai. Chueh, the band
master at the fourth meal, went to Ch'in.
Fang-shu, the drum master, withdrew to the north of the river. Wu, the
master of the hand drum, withdrew to the Han. Yang, the assistant music
master, and Hsiang, master of the musical stone, withdrew to an island
in the sea.